Assessment of human health risk due to contaminated groundwater nearby municipal solid waste disposal site: A case study in Kanpur city

Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Title

Recent Developments in Energy and Environmental Engineering


333 LNCE

First Page


Last Page





School of Engineering




Dixit, A., Singh, D., & Shukla, S. K. (2023). Assessment of human health risk due to contaminated groundwater nearby municipal solid waste disposal site: A case study in Kanpur city. In Recent Developments in Energy and Evironmental Engineering (pp. 315-325). Springer, Singapore.


The rapid expansion of the urban population and industrialization have led to significant contamination in the soil, surface water, and groundwater. Leachate is a complex organic waste extracted from waste dump sites, and it is one of the causes of groundwater contamination. This study investigated the effect of leachate extracted from the municipal solid waste dumpsite, Kanpur, on the groundwater and the health of human receptors. This location is a non-engineered open dumpsite, which handles about 1200 metric tons/day of domestic waste generated and collected from Kanpur city. This site is being used since the year 2010 and has completed 11 years of operation tenure till today. Different researchers have mentioned that any dumpsite having more than 10 operational years is categorized as matured landfill/dumpsite. The leachate samples were collected from the study area and tested for their physicochemical parameters. The effect of this leachate was also assessed on the groundwater quality parameters with the dilution factor of 1:100 in the three different seasons: Pre-monsoon (April), Monsoon (July), and Post Monsoon (October) in the year 2021. The test results were analyzed, and it was found that some hazardous metals were present in leachate samples. This may give rise to carcinogenic/non-carcinogenic health risks. To assess human health risks, the USEPA guidelines were adopted in the analysis. There is a residential area nearby the dumping site. In this study, adults and children are considered as receptors and pathways as oral and dermal. In all three seasons, the health risk was observed as non-carcinogenic, but children are more prone to health risks below the carcinogenic level. The chronic daily intake (CDI) during monsoon season was highest in the case of chromium (1.92 for children) and minimum for zinc (6.86 × 10–6 for adults). This study highlights that a child is a critical receptor during the monsoon season due to the highest value of the total hazard index, HItotal (= 0.68) among all values.



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