Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Nutritional Neuroscience

PubMed ID



Taylor & Francis


Institute for Nutrition Research / School of Medical and Health Sciences






Rees, J., Ryan, J., Laws, M., & Devine, A. (2023). A comprehensive examination of the evidence for whole of diet patterns in Parkinson's disease: A scoping review. Nutritional Neuroscience. Advance online publication.


Both motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD), a progressive neurological condition, have broad-ranging impacts on nutritional intake and dietary behaviour. Historically studies focused on individual dietary components, but evidence demonstrating ameliorative outcomes with whole-of-diet patterns such as Mediterranean and Mediterranean-DASH Intervention for Neurodegenerative Delay (MIND) is emerging. These diets provide plenty of antioxidant rich fruits, vegetables, nuts, wholegrains and healthy fats. Paradoxically, the ketogenic diet, high fat and very low carbohydrate, is also proving to be beneficial. Within the PD community, it is well advertised that nutritional intake is associated with disease progression and symptom severity but understandably, the messaging is inconsistent. With projected prevalence estimated to rise to 1.6 million by 2037, more data regarding the impact of whole-of-diet patterns is needed to develop diet-behaviour change programmes and provide clear advice for PD management. Objectives and Methods: Objectives of this scoping review of both peer-reviewed academic and grey literatures are to determine the current evidence-based consensus for best dietary practice in PD and to ascertain whether the grey literature aligns. Results and Discussion: The consensus from the academic literature was that a MeDi/MIND whole of diet pattern (fresh fruit, vegetables, wholegrains, omega-3 fish and olive oil) is the best practice for improving PD outcomes. Support for the KD is emerging, but further research is needed to determine long-term effects. Encouragingly, the grey literature mostly aligned but nutrition advice was rarely forefront. The importance of nutrition needs greater emphasis in the grey literature, with positive messaging on dietary approaches for management of day-to-day symptoms.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.