Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title









Centre for Precision Health / School of Medical and Health Sciences


National Natural Science Foundation of China


Xu, Z., Han, Z., Wang, J., Jin, R., Li, Z., Zhao, Z., . . . Tao, L. (2023). Association between long-term exposure to fine particulate matter constituents and progression of cerebral blood flow velocity in Beijing: Modifying effect of greenness. GeoHealth, 7(7), article e2023GH000796.


Few studies have explored the effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its constituents on the progression of cerebral blood flow velocity (BFV) and the potential modifying role of greenness. In this study, we investigated the association of PM2.5 and its constituents, including sulfate (SO42−), nitrate (NO3−), ammonium (NH4+), organic matter (OM), and black carbon (BC), with the progression of BFV in the middle cerebral artery. Participants from the Beijing Health Management Cohort who underwent at least two transcranial Doppler sonography examinations during 2015–2020 were recruited. BFV change and BFV change rate were used to define the progression of cerebral BFV. Linear mixed effects models were employed to analyze the data, and the weighted quantile sum regression assessed the contribution of PM2.5 constituents. Additionally, greenness was examined as a modifier. Among the examined constituents, OM exhibited the strongest association with BFV progression. An interquartile range increase in PM2.5 and OM exposure concentrations was associated with a decrease of −16.519 cm/s (95% CI: −17.837, −15.201) and −15.403 cm/s (95% CI: −16.681, −14.126) in BFV change, and −10.369 cm/s/year (95% CI: −11.387, −9.352) and −9.615 cm/s/year (95% CI: −10.599, −8.632) in BFV change rate, respectively. Furthermore, stronger associations between PM2.5 and BFV progression were observed in individuals working in areas with lower greenness, those aged under 45 years, and females. In conclusion, reducing PM2.5 levels in the air, particularly the OM constituent, and enhancing greenness could potentially contribute to the protection of cerebrovascular health.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.