Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

EPMA Journal




School of Medical and Health Sciences / Centre for Precision Health




Special Major Application Research Project for COVID-19 Prevention / Control in Universities, Department of Education of Guangdong, Provincial Program of Innovation and Strengthening School, Guangdong, China / Special Project for COVID-19 Prevention and Treatment of Shantou Science and Technology Bureau, Guangdong, China


Tian, C., Balmer, L., & Tan, X. (2023). COVID-19 lessons to protect populations against future pandemics by implementing PPPM principles in healthcare. EPMA Journal, 14, 329–340 .


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has continued for more than 3 years, placing a huge burden on society worldwide. Although the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared an end to COVID-19 as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), it is still considered a global threat. Previously, there has been a long debate as to whether the COVID-19 emergency will eventually end or transform into a more common infectious disease from a PHEIC, and how should countries respond to similar pandemics in the future more time-efficiently and cost-effectively. We reviewed the past, middle and current situation of COVID-19 based on bibliometric analysis and epidemiological data. Thereby, the necessity is indicated to change the paradigm from reactive healthcare services to predictive, preventive and personalised medicine (PPPM) approach, in order to effectively protect populations against COVID-19 and any future pandemics. Corresponding measures are detailed in the article including the involvement of multi-professional expertise, application of artificial intelligence, rapid diagnostics and patient stratification, and effective protection, amongst other to be considered by advanced health policy.



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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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