Journal of Applied Microbiology
Oxford University Press
School of Medical and Health Sciences
National Health and Medical Research Council / The University of Western Australia
AIMS: To investigate the prevalence, molecular type, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Clostridioides difficile in the environment in Vietnam, where little is known about C. difficile. METHODS AND RESULTS: Samples of pig faeces, soils from pig farms, potatoes, and the hospital environment were cultured for C. difficile. Isolates were identified and typed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotyping. The overall prevalence of C. difficile contamination was 24.5% (68/278). Clostridioides difficile was detected mainly in soils from pig farms and hospital soils, with 70%-100% prevalence. Clostridioides difficile was isolated from 3.4% of pig faecal samples and 5% of potato surfaces. The four most prevalent ribotypes (RTs) were RTs 001, 009, 038, and QX574. All isolates were susceptible to metronidazole, fidaxomicin, vancomycin, and amoxicillin/clavulanate, while resistance to erythromycin, tetracycline, and moxifloxacin was common in toxigenic strains. Clostridioides difficile RTs 001A+B+CDT- and 038A-B-CDT- were predominantly multidrug resistant. CONCLUSIONS: Environmental sources of C. difficile are important to consider in the epidemiology of C. difficile infection in Vietnam, however, contaminated soils are likely to be the most important source of C. difficile. This poses additional challenges to controlling infections in healthcare settings.
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