Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title









School of Science / Security Research Institute




National Natural Science Foundation of China / Hainan Province Science and Technology Special Fund / Scientific Research Fund Project of Hainan University / Fujian University Industry University Research Joint Innovation / Innovative Research Project of Postgraduates in Hainan Province


Dong, R., He, H., Shu, F., Zhang, Q., Chen, R., Yan, S., & Wang, J. (2023). Joint beamforming and phase shift design for hybrid IRS and UAV-aided directional modulation networks. Drones, 7(6), article 634.


Recently, intelligent reflecting surfaces (IRSs) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have been integrated into wireless communication systems to enhance the performance of air–ground transmission. To balance performance, cost, and power consumption well, a hybrid IRS and UAV-assisted directional modulation (DM) network is investigated in this paper in which the hybrid IRS consisted of passive and active reflecting elements. We aimed to maximize the achievable rate by jointly designing the beamforming and phase shift matrix (PSM) of the hybrid IRS subject to the power and unit-modulus constraints of passive IRS phase shifts. To solve the non-convex optimization problem, a high-performance scheme based on successive convex approximation and fractional programming (FP) called the maximal signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)-FP (Max-SNR-FP) is proposed. Given its high complexity, we propose a low-complexity maximal SNR-equal amplitude reflecting (EAR) (Max-SNR-EAR) scheme based on the maximal signal-to-leakage-noise ratio method, and the criteria of phase alignment and EAR. Given that the active and passive IRS phase shift matrices of both schemes are optimized separately, to investigate the effect of jointly optimizing them to improve the achievable rate, a maximal SNR majorization-minimization (MM) (Max-SNR-MM) scheme using the MM criterion to design the IRS PSM is proposed. Simulation results show that the rates harvested by the three proposed methods were slightly lower than those of the active IRS with higher power consumption, which were 35% higher than those of no IRS and random phase IRS, while passive IRS achieved only about a 17% rate gain over the latter. Moreover, compared with the Max-SNR-FP, the proposed Max-SNR-EAR and Max-SNR-MM methods caused obvious complexity degradation at the price of slight performance loss.



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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.