Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title





School of Medical and Health Sciences / Nutrition and Health Innovation Research Institute




Kidney Health Australia / Healthway Health Promotion Foundation of Western Australia / Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital Research Advisory Committee grant / National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia / National Heart Foundation Future Leader Fellowship / Royal Perth Hospital Research Foundation Fellowship / Emerging Leader Fellowship from the Western Australian Future Health Research and Innovation Fund

Grant Number

NHMRC Numbers : 254627, 303169, 572604

Grant Link


Bauer, C., Sim, M., Prince, R. L., Zhu, K., Lim, E. M., Byrnes, E., . . . Levinger, I. (2023). Circulating lipocalin-2 and features of metabolic syndrome in community-dwelling older women: A cross-sectional study. Bone, 176, article 116861.


Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is released by several cell types including osteoblasts and adipocytes and has been suggested as a marker of renal dysfunction, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Whether LCN2 is linked to these diseases in older women remains unknown. This study investigated whether LCN2 is related to features of MetS and T2D in older women. This cross-sectional study included 705 non-diabetic women (mean age 75.1 ± 2.6 years) for MetS analysis and 76 women (mean age 75.4 ± 2.8 years) with T2D. Total circulating LCN2 levels were analysed using a two-step chemiluminescent microparticle monoclonal immunoassay. MetS was determined by a modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III classification. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis was used to assess odds ratios between LCN2 quartiles and MetS. Women in the highest LCN2 quartile had approximately 3 times greater risk for MetS compared to women in the lowest quartile (OR 3.05; 95%CI 1.86–5.02). Women with T2D or MetS scores of ≥ 3 had higher LCN2 levels compared to women with a MetS score of 0 (p < 0.05). Higher LCN2 correlated with higher body mass index, fat mass, triglycerides and glycated haemoglobin and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and estimated glomerular filtration rate (p < 0.05). Higher circulating levels of LCN2 are associated with worsened cardio-metabolic risk factors and increased odds of MetS and T2D in older women. Whether it can be used as a biomarker for identifying those at risk for MetS and T2D should be explored further.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.