Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Analytica Chimica Acta




School of Science




University of Liverpool


Eikelboom, M., Wang, Y., Portlock, G., Gourain, A., Gardner, J., Bullen, J., . . . Salaun, P. (2023). Voltammetric determination of inorganic arsenic in mildly acidified (pH 4.7) groundwaters from Mexico and India. Analytica Chemica Acta, 1276, article 341589.


Routine monitoring of inorganic arsenic in groundwater using sensitive, reliable, easy-to-use and affordable analytical methods is integral to identifying sources, and delivering appropriate remediation solutions, to the widespread global issue of arsenic pollution. Voltammetry has many advantages over other analytical techniques, but the low electroactivity of arsenic(V) requires the use of either reducing agents or relatively strong acidic conditions, which both complicate the analytical procedures, and require more complex material handling by skilled operators. Here, we present the voltammetric determination of total inorganic arsenic in conditions of near-neutral pH using a new commercially available 25 m diameter gold microwire (called the Gold Wirebond), which is described here for the first time. The method is based on the addition of low concentrations of permanganate (10 M MnO4−) which fulfils two roles: (1) to ensure that all inorganic arsenic is present as arsenate by chemically oxidising arsenite to arsenate and, (2) to provide a source of manganese allowing the sensitive detection of arsenate by anodic stripping voltammetry at a gold electrode. Tests were carried out in synthetic solutions of various pH (ranging from 4.7 to 9) in presence/absence of chloride. The best response was obtained in 0.25 M chloride-containing acetate buffer resulting in analytical parameters (limit of detection of 0.28 g L−1 for 10 s deposition time, linear range up to 20 g L−1 and a sensitivity of 63.5 nA ppb−1. s−1) better than those obtained in acidic conditions. We used this new method to measure arsenic concentrations in contrasting groundwaters: the reducing, arsenite-rich groundwaters of India (West Bengal and Bihar regions) and the oxidising, arsenate-rich groundwaters of Mexico (Guanajuato region). Very good agreement was obtained in all groundwaters with arsenic concentrations measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (slope = +1.029, R2 = 0.99). The voltammetric method is sensitive, faster than other voltammetric techniques for detection of arsenic (typically 10 min per sample including triplicate measurements and 2 standard additions), easier to implement than previous methods (no acidic conditions, no chemical reduction required, reproducible sensor, can be used by non-voltammetric experts) and could enable cheaper groundwater surveying campaigns with in-the-field analysis for quick data reporting, even in remote communities.



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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.