Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title









School of Science


European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program: project CyberSec4Europe


Papaspirou, V., Papathanasaki, M., Maglaras, L., Kantzavelou, I., Douligeris, C., Ferrag, M. A., & Janicke, H. (2023). A novel authentication method that combines honeytokens and google authenticator. Information, 14(7), article 386.


Despite the rapid development of technology, computer systems still rely heavily on passwords for security, which can be problematic. Although multi-factor authentication has been introduced, it is not completely effective against more advanced attacks. To address this, this study proposes a new two-factor authentication method that uses honeytokens. Honeytokens and Google Authenticator are combined to create a stronger authentication process. The proposed approach aims to provide additional layers of security and protection to computer systems, increasing their overall security beyond what is currently provided by single-password or standard two-factor authentication methods. The key difference is that the proposed system resembles a two-factor authentication but, in reality, works like a multi-factor authentication system. Multi-factor authentication (MFA) is a security technique that verifies a user’s identity by requiring multiple credentials from distinct categories. These typically include knowledge factors (something the user knows, such as a password or PIN), possession factors (something the user has, such as a mobile phone or security token), and inherence factors (something the user is, such as a biometric characteristic like a fingerprint). This multi-tiered approach significantly enhances protection against potential attacks. We examined and evaluated our system’s robustness against various types of attacks. From the user’s side, the system is as friendly as a two-factor authentication method with an authenticator and is more secure.



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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.