Journal of Alzheimer's Disease Reports
Centre for Precision Health / School of Medical and Health Sciences
Edith Cowan University / National Health and Medical Research Council
NHMRC Number : GNT1197315
Sirtuin-1 (Sirt1), encoded by the SIRT1 gene, is a conserved Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) dependent deacetylase enzyme, considered as the master regulator of metabolism in humans. Sirt1 contributes to a wide range of biological pathways via several mechanisms influenced by lifestyle, such as diet and exercise. The importance of a healthy lifestyle is of relevance to highly prevalent modern chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is growing evidence at multiple levels for a role of Sirt1/SIRT1 in AD pathological mechanisms. As such, this review will explore the relevance of Sirt1 to AD pathological mechanisms, by describing the involvement of Sirt1/SIRT1 in the development of AD pathological hallmarks, through its impact on the metabolism of amyloid- and degradation of phosphorylated tau. We then explore the involvement of Sirt1/SIRT1 across different AD-relevant biological processes, including cholesterol metabolism, inflammation, circadian rhythm, and gut microbiome, before discussing the interplay between Sirt1 and AD-related lifestyle factors, such as diet, physical activity, and smoking, as well as depression, a common comorbidity. Genome-wide association studies have explored potential associations between SIRT1 and AD, as well as AD risk factors and co-morbidities. We summarize this evidence at the genetic level to highlight links between SIRT1 and AD, particularly associations with AD-related risk factors, such as heart disease. Finally, we review the current literature of potential interactions between SIRT1 genetic variants and lifestyle factors and how this evidence supports the need for further research to determine the relevance of these interactions with respect to AD and dementia.
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