Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Journal of Marine Science and Engineering








School of Engineering


Bali, M., Etemad-Shahidi, A., & van Gent, M. R. A. (2023). On the stability of rubble mound structures under oblique wave attack. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, 11(7), article 1261.


Slope stability formulae for rubble mound structures are usually developed for head-on conditions. Often, the effects of oblique waves are neglected, mainly because it is assumed that for oblique wave attack, the reduction in damage compared to perpendicular wave attack is insignificant. When the incident waves are oblique, the required armour size can be reduced compared to the perpendicular wave attack case. Therefore, it is important to consider the wave obliquity influence on slope stability formulae as a reduction factor. One of the most recent formulae for estimating the stability of rock-armoured slopes, referred to as Etemad-Shahidi et al. (2020), was proposed for perpendicular wave attack. The aim of this study is to develop a suitable wave obliquity reduction factor for the above-mentioned stability formula. To achieve this, first, laboratory experiment datasets from existing reliable studies were selected and analysed. Then, previously suggested reduction factors were evaluated and a suitable reduction factor for the mentioned stability formula were suggested. The suggested reduction factor includes the effect of wave obliquity and directional spreading explicitly. It is shown that the stability prediction is improved by using the wave obliquity reduction factor.



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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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