Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Urban Forestry & Urban Greening






School of Science




Parks and Gardens Organization of Mashhad


Kazemi, F., Hosseinpour, N., & Ebrahimian, M. (2023). People's preferences and perceptions toward low-input versus conventional park design approaches using 3D images and interview-based questionnaires. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 86, article 128040.


Future urban planning and public satisfaction will be significantly impacted by understanding people's preferences and perceptions of urban landscape design scenarios, particularly innovative sustainable development approaches. This study examined residents' preferences in Mashhad, Iran, for low-input park design versus conventional park design techniques. The research method integrated questionnaire-based interviews with 3D-simulated images of a site designed with the two approaches. Ninety-three respondents answered validated questions regarding their preference towards the planting and architecture of the parks, their perceptions about social sustainability, psychological feelings, and their perceptions of low-input and maintenance of the spaces. T-test analyses showed that people preferred the low-input park design more than the conventional design for the first four factors. However, the respondents needed to recognize significant differences between the two plans for the low-input and maintenance character of the parks. These results showed that people have positive views and perceptions toward sustainable design approaches like low-input park design. This approach can attract the public and meet their social, psychological, and aesthetic needs with appropriate planning and designs. However, people require education and awareness about the maintenance and sustainability aspects of landscape design approaches. Architecture and planting design visual preferences were suitable predictors for people's overall preference toward the low-input park design approach. The research outputs and the applied method provide insights into sustainable landscape planning in the urban environment.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.