Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports




Centre for Human Performance / School of Medical and Health Sciences




This study was supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology (111-2410-H-003-147-MY3) and the Higher Education Sprout Project by the Ministry of Education (MOE) in Taiwan.


Chen, T. C., Chen, H. L., Tseng, W. C., Chou, T. Y., Tu, J. H., Parcell, A. C., & Nosaka, K. (2023). Contralateral versus ipsilateral protective effect against muscle damage of the elbow flexors and knee extensors induced by maximal eccentric exercise. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 33(12), 2548-2560.


The present study compared the ipsilateral repeated bout effect (IL-RBE) and contralateral repeated bout effect (CL-RBE) of the elbow flexors (EF) and knee flexors (KF) for the same interval between bouts to shed light on their mechanisms. Fifty-two healthy sedentary young (20–28 years) men were randomly assigned to the IL-EF, IL-KF, CL-EF, and CL-KF groups (n = 13/group). Thirty maximal eccentric contractions of the EF were performed in IL-EF and CL-EF, and 60 maximal eccentric contractions of the KF were performed in IL-KF and CL-KF, with a 2-week interval between bouts. Changes in muscle damage markers such as maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque, muscle soreness, and plasma creatine kinase activity, and proprioception measures before to 5 days post-exercise were compared between groups. Changes in all variables were greater (p < 0.05) after the first than second bout for all groups, and the changes were greater (p < 0.05) for the EF than KF. The changes in all variables after the second bout were greater (p < 0.05) for the CL than IL condition for both EF and KF. The magnitude of the average protective effect was similar between CL-EF (33%) and CL-KF (32%), but slightly greater (p < 0.05) for IL-EF (67%) than IL-KF (61%). These demonstrate that the magnitude of CL-RBE relative to IL-RBE was similar between the EF and KF (approximately 50%), regardless of the greater muscle damage for the EF than KF. It appears that the CL-RBE is more associated with neural adaptations at cerebrum, cerebellum, interhemispheric inhibition, and coricospinal tract, but the IL-RBE is induced by additional adaptations at muscles.



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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.