School of Medical and Health Sciences / Centre for Precision Health
National Natural Science Foundation of China / Young Taishan Scholars Program of Shandong Province of China / Academic Promotion Programme of Shandong First Medical University / Shandong Province Higher Educational Young and Innovation Technology Supporting Program / Doctoral Scientific Research Foundation of Shandong First Medical University
Although the association between immunoglobulin G (IgG) N-glycosylation and metabolic traits has been previously identified, the causal association between them remains unclear. In this work, we used Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to integrate genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) data in order to investigate the bidirectional causal association of IgG N-glycosylation with metabolic traits. In the forward MR analysis, 59 (including nine putatively causal glycan peaks (GPs) for body mass index (BMI) (GP1, GP6, etc.) and seven for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (GP1, GP5, etc.)) and 15 (including five putatively causal GPs for BMI (GP2, GP11, etc.) and four for FPG (GP1, GP10, etc.)) genetically determined IgG N-glycans were identified as being associated with metabolic traits in one- and two-sample MR studies, respectively, by integrating IgG N-glycan-QTL variants with GWAS results for metabolic traits (all P < 0.05). Accordingly, in the reverse MR analysis of the integrated metabolic-QTL variants with the GWAS results for IgG N-glycosylation traits, 72 (including one putatively causal metabolic trait for GP1 (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)) and five for GP2 (FPG, systolic blood pressure (SBP), etc.)) and four (including one putatively causal metabolic trait for GP3 (HDL-C) and one for GP9 (HDL-C)) genetically determined metabolic traits were found to be related to the risk of IgG N-glycosylation in one- and two-sample MR studies, respectively (all P < 0.05). Notably, genetically determined associations of GP11 BMI (fixed-effects model-Beta with standard error (SE): 0.106 (0.034) and 0.010 (0.005)) and HDL-C GP9 (fixed-effects model-Beta with SE: –0.071 (0.022) and –0.306 (0.151)) were identified in both the one- and two-sample MR settings, which were further confirmed by a meta-analysis combining the one- and two-sample MR results (fixed-effects model-Beta with 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.0109 (0.0012, 0.0207) and –0.0759 (–0.1186, –0.0332), respectively). In conclusion, the comprehensively bidirectional MR analyses provide suggestive evidence of bidirectional causality between IgG N-glycosylation and metabolic traits, possibly revealing a new richness in the biological mechanism between IgG N-glycosylation and metabolic traits. © 2022 THE AUTHORS
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