Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile in adults with diarrhoea in Vietnam

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title





School of Medical and Health Sciences




University of Western Australia / National Health & Medical Research Council Early Career Fellowship


Khun, P. A., Phi, L. D., Bui, H. T. T., Collins, D. A., & Riley, T. V. (2023). Influence of soil fabric on dynamic properties of sand: An experimental study. Anaerobe, 81, article 102741.


Background: Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile causes antimicrobial-associated diarrhoea, however, presentations may range from asymptomatic carriage to severe diarrhoea, life-threatening toxic megacolon and even death. Reports on C. difficile infection (CDI) in Vietnam remain limited. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the epidemiology, molecular characteristics, and antimicrobial susceptibility of C. difficile isolated from adults with diarrhoea in Vietnam. Methods: Diarrhoeal stool samples from adult patients aged ≥ 17 years old were collected at Thai Binh General Hospital in northern Vietnam between March 1, 2021 and February 28, 2022. All samples were transported to The University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia for C. difficile culture, toxin gene profiling, PCR ribotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Results: A total of 205 stool samples were collected from patients aged from 17 to 101 years old. The overall prevalence of C. difficile was 15.1% (31/205) with the recovery of toxigenic and non-toxigenic isolates 9.8% (20/205) and 6.3% (13/205), respectively. Thus 33 isolates were recovered comprising 18 known ribotypes (RTs) and one novel RT (two samples contained two different RTs in each sample). The most prevalent strains were RT 012 (five strains) and RTs 014/020, 017 and QX 070 three strains each. All C. difficile were susceptible to amoxicillin/clavulanate, fidaxomicin, metronidazole, moxifloxacin and vancomycin, while resistance to varying degrees was seen to clindamycin, erythromycin, tetracycline and rifaximin, 78.8% (26/33), 51.5% (17/33), 27.3% (9/33) and 6.1% (2/33), respectively. The prevalence of multidrug resistance was 27.3% (9/33) and multidrug resistance was most common in toxigenic RT 012 and non-toxigenic RT 038 strains. Conclusion: The prevalence of C. difficile in adults with diarrhoea and multidrug resistance in C. difficile isolates was relatively high. A clinical assessment to differentiate between CDI/disease and colonisation is required. © 2023 Elsevier Ltd



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