Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing








School of Engineering




Jones, J., Vafadar, A., & Hashemi, R. (2023). A review of the mechanical properties of 17-4PH stainless steel produced by bound powder extrusion. Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing, 7(5), article 162.


17-4PH Stainless Steel is a mechanically high-performing alloy that is widely used across chemical and mechanical processing industries. The alloy is conventionally fabricated by cast methods, but emerging additive manufacturing techniques are presently offering an economic, efficient, and environmentally friendly alternative. Bound Powder Extrusion (BPE) is a relatively new additive manufacturing technique that is used to fabricate three-dimensional, free-form components. Investigation into the mechanical properties and behavior of 17-4PH stainless steel fabricated by BPE is vital to understanding whether this technique proposes a competitive substitute to the cast alloy within industry. Published literature has investigated the as-fabricated mechanical properties, microstructure, porosity, and post-processing heat treatment of the BPE alloy, with limited comparison evident among the papers. This paper, therefore, aims to review published findings on the mechanical properties of 17-4PH stainless steel produced by additive manufacturing techniques, with a key focus on BPE. It is important to highlight that this review study focuses on the MetalXTM 3D printer, manufactured by Markforged. This printer is among the widely utilized BPE 3D printers available in the market. The key results, together with the impact of post-heat treatments, were discussed and compared to provide a more comprehensive picture of the patterns that this alloy presents in terms of its microstructure and mechanical properties. This enables the manufacture of components relative to desired material performance, improving overall functionality. A comparison of yield strength, ultimate tensile strength (UTS), Young’s modulus, ductility, and hardness was made relative to microstructure, porosity, and density of published literature for the as-fabricated and post-heat-treated states, identifying areas for further research.



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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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