Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Health and Social Care in the Community


Hindawi / Wiley


School of Nursing and Midwifery




Australian Capital Territorys Primary Health Network


Batten, M., Kosari, S., Lewis, J., Naunton, M., & Strickland, K. (2023). Exploration of an on-site pharmacist intervention within Australian residential aged care facilities using normalisation process theory: A mixed-methods study. Health & Social Care in the Community, 2023, article 4370884.


Residents living in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) continue to experience medication-related harm. There is ongoing interest in expanding the role of pharmacists, including on-site pharmacists (OSPs), to help improve medication management in RACFs. The objectives of this mixed-methods study were to explore the extent and ways in which on-site pharmacists (OSPs) were normalised within RACFs as part of a complex intervention seeking to improve medication management. This study consisted of semistructured interviews informed by normalisation process theory (NPT) and a quantitative survey adapted from the normalisation measure development questionnaire (NoMAD) instrument which is underpinned by NPT. Semistructured interviews with prescribers, RACF managers, RACF nursing staff, OSPs, residents, and family members (n = 47) indicated that most participants supported OSPs within RACFs that having OSPs in RACFs made sense and was perceived as beneficial and that participants were invested in working with OSPs who often became part of routine practice, i.e., “normalised.” Prescribers, RACF managers, and nursing staff (health care team members) completed the adapted survey, and their responses (n = 16) strongly complemented the positive qualitative findings. Overall, OSPs were positively appraised by health care team members as well as residents and family members and were generally considered to be normalised within their respective RACFs. This study explored the normalisation of OSPs within RACFs. From the perspective of residents, family members, health care team members, and OSPs, OSPs could become part of routine practice within Australian RACFs. The findings of this study also highlighted the value of using theory to guide the evaluation of a pharmacist intervention in RACFs and the utility of applying NPT in a new setting, Australian RACFs. Importantly, the findings of this study could help inform the future role of OSPs working and the rollout of OSPs within Australian RACFs.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.