Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

IEEE Access



First Page


Last Page





School of Engineering




Taif University


Molu, R. J. J., Naoussi, S. R. D., Wira, P., Mbasso, W. F., Kenfack, S. T., Das, B. K., . . . Ghoneim, S. S. M. (2023). Optimizing technical and economic aspects of off-grid hybrid renewable systems: A case study of Manoka Island, Cameroon. IEEE Access, 11, 130909-130930.


The lack of accessible and reliable electrical energy in Cameroon has become a pervasive obstacle to the nation's progress, with energy availability, quality, and cost identified as key hindrances to development over the past 15 years. Conventional solutions that rely on combustion engines and electrochemical storage systems have proven to be cost-prohibitive, limited in power output, and constrained in capacity. The dependence on traditional diesel generators has perpetuated maintenance challenges and a continuous demand for fuel supply, while the accompanying noise and pollution have restricted their use in residential areas. Recognizing the imperative of reducing dependence on fossil fuels and curbing greenhouse gas emissions, the need for clean and sustainable energy sources has emerged as a critical concern for the advancement of civilization. Against this backdrop, this research endeavors to identify the most cost-effective and efficient blend of renewable energy sources capable of meeting the power requirements of three small communities on Manoka Island, a district of Douala, Cameroon. Through a comprehensive technical, environmental, and economic analysis, this study addresses the substantial energy needs of 334 households, with an average daily power consumption of 1082.90 kWh and a peak electrical load of 183.99 kW. Leveraging the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER) program, this investigation assesses the feasibility of implementing Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems (HRES) to meet the region's energy demands. The research highlights the most optimal scenario integrating solar panels, wind turbines, battery cells, fuel cell generators, biogas, and an electrolyzer within an off-grid HRES system. Notably, the study demonstrated an absence of idle load, resulting in remarkably low unit energy costs of $ { \ $ } $ 0.1981 and a compelling net present value of $ { \ $ } $ 2,209,741. The cost-effective arrangement featured 201 batteries, yielding a project profit of $ { \ $ } $ 57,387, with an impressive Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 9.09%, Return on Investment (ROI) of 6.19%, and a payback period of 8.76 years over a 25-year term. In essence, the insights gleaned from this exploration of hybrid energy systems represent a pioneering case study in sustainable electricity provision. This research significantly contributes to the knowledge base on renewable energy within the nation, underscoring its tremendous potential for sustainable development and energy security.



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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.