Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

The Australian Educational Researcher




School of Education




Open Access funding enabled and organized by CAUL and its Member Institutions


Martin, D. A., Carey, M. D., McMasterm N., & Clarkin, M. (2024). Assessing primary school preservice teachers’ confidence to apply their TPACK in specific categories of technologies using a self-audit survey. The Australian Educational Researcher. Advance online publication.


Internationally, university teacher educators have acted on the requirement that practising teachers need to be operational users of technologies. In response, coursework has been restructured to develop preservice teachers’ (PSTs) use and application of educational technologies for teaching and learning purposes. This paper presents the development and use of a self-audit survey designed to guide primary school PSTs’ self-directed learning and assessments in 10 specific categories of technologies, and to improve their confidence to apply their knowledge. The survey was administered to 296 PSTs in a pre- and post-course design and validated post hoc with Rasch analysis. Pre- and post-course comparison of responses showed significant increases in the PSTs’ self-assessed confidence in their abilities across all ability categories with medium to large effect sizes (r =.42–.82). The survey had utility, providing each PST with a customised report with which to identify their technology learning needs; it also provided PSTs with the agency to be self-directed in their learning. The survey has the potential to provide teacher educators with fine-grained information regarding which technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) being currently taught can be adopted, adapted, or rejected to maximise PSTs’ TPACK development.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.