Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Journal of Sustainable Tourism


Taylor & Francis


School of Business and Law


Ministry of higher Education, Malaysia / Fundamental Research Grant (FRGS) 2019 and 2021


This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in JOURNAL OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM on 23rd March 2024, available online:

Rasoolimanesh, S. M., Chee, S. Y., & Salee, A. (2024). Scale development for measuring sustainability of urban destinations from the perspectives of residents, tourists, businesses and government. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. Advance online publication.


This study develops four subjective scales to measure a destination’s sustainability from the perspectives of residents, tourists, businesses and government agencies. Using the expert opinion survey, participants were asked to evaluate the initial list of indicators based on five aspects of sustainability, including economic, socio-cultural, environmental, political and technological sustainability for each stakeholder group. Then, the scales were validated using partial least squares - structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and confirmatory composite analysis (CCA). This article has a unique theoretical contribution by developing four scales to measure the sustainability of destinations from the perspective of four main stakeholders. Moreover, this article provides practical implications and can assist tourism providers and governments in better understanding sustainable urban tourism development and shaping policy.



Available for download on Wednesday, October 01, 2025