Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Landscape and Urban Planning






School of Medical and Health Sciences / Nutrition and Health Innovation Research Institute


Australian Research Council / Western Australian (WA) Health Promotion Foundation / Department of Planning Lands and Heritage (WA) / Office of the Government Architect (WA) / Planning Institute of Australia (PIA) / Development WA and Heart Foundation

Grant Number

ARC Number : DE160100140, FT210100899, LP190100558

Grant Link


Bolleter, J., Hooper, P., Kleeman, A., Edwards, N., & Foster, S. (2024). A typological study of the provision and use of communal outdoor space in Australian apartment developments. Landscape and Urban Planning, 246, article 105040.


There is a consensus that higher-density urban settings need to be accompanied by communal outdoor space (COS) to bolster the well-being of apartment residents. Nonetheless, there is a lack of studies identifying COS types in apartment buildings and systematically assessing the degree to which they provide greenery and are used by residents. In response, this study developed a COS typology for apartment buildings in Australian cities, measured the degree to which each COS type provides access to greenery, and examined which COS types received the most frequent visitation via a resident survey (n = 975). Results show that some dominant COS typologies provide scant access to greenery and are underutilised. For instance, the Podium Terrace and Roof Terrace types only contained 24 and 8 % vegetated area, with the remainder hard surfaces. Moreover, the Podium Terrace and Roof Terrace types averaged no substantial trees. Conversely, ground floor types such as Parks and Setback Gardens contained 51 and 53 % planted area, respectively and significant numbers of trees. Policy requirements that target specific COS types could elevate their naturalness and increase use.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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