Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Computers and Security






School of Science / Security Research Institute


Cyber Security Research Centre Limited / Australian Government’s Cooperative Research Centre Program


Bui, H. T., Aboutorab, H., Mahboubi, A., Gao, Y., Sultan, N. H., Chauhan, A., . . . Yan, S. (2024). Agriculture 4.0 and beyond: Evaluating cyber threat intelligence sources and techniques in smart farming ecosystems. Computers & Security, 140, article 103754.


The digitisation of agriculture, integral to Agriculture 4.0, has brought significant benefits while simultaneously escalating cybersecurity risks. With the rapid adoption of smart farming technologies and infrastructure, the agricultural sector has become an attractive target for cyberattacks. This paper presents a systematic literature review that assesses the applicability of existing cyber threat intelligence (CTI) techniques within smart farming infrastructures (SFIs). We develop a comprehensive taxonomy of CTI techniques and sources, specifically tailored to the SFI context, addressing the unique cyber threat challenges in this domain. A crucial finding of our review is the identified need for a virtual Chief Information Security Officer (vCISO) in smart agriculture. While the concept of a vCISO is not yet established in the agricultural sector, our study highlights its potential significance. The implementation of a vCISO could play a pivotal role in enhancing cybersecurity measures by offering strategic guidance, developing robust security protocols, and facilitating real-time threat analysis and response strategies. This approach is critical for safeguarding the food supply chain against the evolving landscape of cyber threats. Our research underscores the importance of integrating a vCISO framework into smart farming practices as a vital step towards strengthening cybersecurity. This is essential for protecting the agriculture sector in the era of digital transformation, ensuring the resilience and sustainability of the food supply chain against emerging cyber risks.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.