Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title









School of Engineering


Nazarbayev University Research Fund / PETRONAS / National Key Research and Development Program of China / health management technology of offshore oil subsea production system / Foreign Young Talents Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology China


Khan, J. A., Kim, J., Irawan, S., Permatasar, K. A., Verdin, P. G., Cai, B., & Yekeen, N. (2024). Application of foam assisted water-alternating-gas flooding and quantification of resistivity and water saturation by experiment and simulation to determine foam propagation in sandstone. Heliyon, 10(3), article e25435.


Foam flooding by Foam Assisted Water-Alternating-Gas (FAWAG) is an important enhanced oil recovery method that has proven successful in experimental and pilot studies. The present study is carried out to monitor the movement of the foam front once injected into the porous medium. This study aims to investigate applications of resistivity waves to monitor foam propagation in a sandstone formation. In the present lab-scale experiments and simulations, resistivity measurements were carried out to monitor the progression of foam in a sand pack, and the relationships between foam injection time and resistivity, as well as brine saturation, were studied. The brine saturation from foam simulation using CMG STAR is exported to COMSOL and calculated true formation resistivity. A diagram was produced summarizing the progression of foam through the sand pack in the function of time, which enabled us to establish how foam progressed through a porous medium. A surfactant and brine mixture was injected into the sand pack, followed by nitrogen gas to generate the foam in situ. As foam progressed through the sand pack, resistance measurements were taken in three zones of the sand pack. The resistance was then converted into resistivity and finally into brine saturation. As foam travels through the sand pack, it is predicted to displace the brine initially in place. This gradually increases each zone's resistivity (decreases the brine saturation) by displacing the brine. Also, an increase in the surfactant concentration results in higher resistivity. Finally, a comparison of three different surfactant concentrations was evaluated in terms of resistivity results, water saturation, and foam propagation monitoring to obtain the optimum surfactant concentration involved in foam flooding.



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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.