Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Powder Technology






School of Engineering




Higher Education Commission (HEC) Pakistan / Edith Cowan University (ECU)


Gillani, S. E., Al-Abdeli, Y. M., & Tian, Z. F. (2024). Influence of side dilution jets on swirling and non-swirling pulverised biomass turbulent annular flows. Powder Technology, 438, article 119683.


The use of pulverised biomass in non-premixed combustion systems, featuring turbulent annular flows (swirling, non-swirling) with downstream air dilution jets, is of immense practical importance. The overall combustion performance and emissions heavily rely on the underlying flow dynamics, turbulence and dispersion behaviour of the pulverised biomass particles. Despite the practical significance of side dilution jets in aiding complete combustion and controlling pollutants, the fundamental understanding of side dilution jets influence on the biomass particle velocity field, turbulence, and dispersion characteristics is still lacking. However, the presence of a multi-phase (solid-gas) flow field, highly turbulent annular flows, swirl, and cross-wise turbulent dilution jets poses significant challenges to these investigations. This work employs a combination of two-dimensional planar Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experiments and three-dimensional multi-phase numerical modelling to resolve the influence of turbulent side dilution jets (Red = 18,000 and 27,000) on the particle flow and dispersion characteristics of turbulent annular jets equipped with a central pulverised biomass-laden jet. The numerical modelling uses Reynolds stress model (RSM) and discrete phase model (DPM) for the solution of gas and dispersed phases, respectively. Walnut flour based raw pulverised biomass is injected at a certain particle loading ratio ( p=0.33 and 0.49) through a turbulent central jet (Rj = 4500) into non-swirling (S = 0) and swirling (S = 0.3) turbulent confined annular flows (Res = 35,500 and 17,800). Comprehensive Constant Temperature Anemometry (CTA) experiments are conducted to obtain well-defined boundary conditions for experiments as well as numerical simulations. Prior to numerical predictions, the models are duly validated against the experimental data. Results reveal that the characteristic flow feature of side dilution jets, i.e., peripheral recirculation zones (PRZ) significantly entrains pulverised biomass particles from the turbulent particle-laden (central jet) annular flows (both swirling and non-swirling) and alters the particle flow and turbulence characteristics. Under non-swirling conditions (S = 0), side dilution jets reduce mean particle axial velocity by 22.4% and increase turbulent fluctuating velocity by 52.6%. These figures elevate to 32.5% and 100% respectively for swirling conditions (S = 0.3), depicting enhanced turbulent mixing between solid particles and the gas phase. In terms of particle dispersion, side dilution jets significantly enhance lateral dispersion of biomass particles, particularly under swirling flow conditions. In the PRZ region, side dilution jets led to a 108% and 279% increase in normalised particle count for non-swirling and swirling cases, respectively. These findings suggest that swirl doubles the particle dispersion in the PRZ. Furthermore, a 50% increase in Red enables side dilution jets to entrain more biomass particles and disperse them into the PRZ. Conversely, a 50% increase in ṁp leads to a significant increase in particle volume fraction along the central axis of the nozzle.



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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

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