Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Annals of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery





First Page


Last Page



The Korean Association of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery


School of Science


Koek, S., Lo, J., Ledger, R., & Ballal, M. (2024). Postoperative fluid therapy in enhanced recovery after surgery for pancreaticoduodenectomy. Annals of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery, 28(1), 80-91.


Backgrounds/Aims: Optimal intravenous fluid management during the perioperative period for patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) within the framework of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) is unclear. Studies have indicated that excessive total body salt and water can contribute to the development of oedema, leading to increased morbidity and extended hospital stays. This study aimed to assess the effects of an intravenous therapy regimen during postoperative day (POD) 0 to 2 in PD patients within ERAS. Methods: A retrospective interventional cohort study was conducted, and it involved all PD patients before and after implementation of ERAS (2009–2017). In the ERAS group, a targeted maintenance fluid regimen of 20 mL/kg/day with a sodium requirement of 0.5 mmoL/kg/day was administered. Outcome measures included the mmol of sodium and chloride administered, length of stay, and morbidity (postoperative pancreatic fistula, POPF; acute kidney injury, AKI; ileus). Results: The study included 169 patients, with a mean age of 64 ± 11.3 years. Following implementation of the intravenous fluid therapy protocol, there was a significant reduction in chloride and sodium loading. However, in the multivariable analysis, chloride administered (mmoL/kg) did not independently influence the length of stay; or rates of POPF, ileus, or AKI (p > 0.05). Conclusions: The findings suggested that a postoperative intravenous fluid therapy regimen did not significantly impact morbidity. Notably, there was a trend towards reduced length of stay within an increasingly comorbid patient cohort. This targeted fluid regimen appears to be safe for PD patients within the ERAS program. Further prospective research is needed to explore this area.



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Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License