Brief report: Real-world toxicity and survival of combination immunotherapy in pleural mesothelioma—RIOMeso

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Journal Article

Publication Title

Journal of Thoracic Oncology





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Last Page


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School of Medical and Health Sciences


McNamee, N., Harvey, C., Gray, L., Khoo, T., Lingam, L., Zhang, B., . . . Nagrial, A. (2024). Brief report: Real-world toxicity and survival of combination immunotherapy in pleural mesothelioma—RIOMeso. Journal of Thoracic Oncology, 19(4), 636-642.


Background: Australia has one of the highest rates of asbestos-associated diseases. Mesothelioma remains an area of unmet need with a 5-year overall survival of 10%. First-line immunotherapy with ipilimumab and nivolumab is now a standard of care for unresectable pleural mesothelioma following the CheckMate 743 trial, with supportive data from the later line single-arm MAPS2 trial. RIOMeso evaluates survival and toxicity of this regimen in real-world practice. Methods: Demographic and clinicopathologic data of Australian patients treated with ipilimumab and nivolumab in first- and subsequent-line settings for pleural mesothelioma were collected retrospectively. Survival was reported using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared between subgroups with the log-rank test. Toxicity was investigator assessed using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 5.0. Results: A total of 119 patients were identified from 11 centers. The median age was 72 years, 83% were male, 92% had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group less than or equal to 1, 50% were past or current smokers, and 78% had known asbestos exposure. In addition, 50% were epithelioid, 19% sarcomatoid, 14% biphasic, and 17% unavailable. Ipilimumab and nivolumab were used first line in 75% of patients. Median overall survival (mOS) was 14.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 13.0–not reached [NR]) for the entire cohort. For patients treated first line, mOS was 14.5 months (95% CI: 12.5–NR) and in second- or later-line patients was 15.4 months (95% CI: 11.2–NR). There was no statistically significant difference in mOS for epithelioid patients compared with nonepithelioid (19.1 mo [95% CI: 15.4–NR] versus 13.0 mo [95% CI: 9.7–NR], respectively, p = 0.064). Furthermore, 24% of the patients had a Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events grade greater than or equal to 3 adverse events, including three treatment-related deaths. Colitis was the most frequent adverse event. Conclusions: Combination immunotherapy in real-world practice has poorer survival outcomes and seems more toxic compared with clinical trial data. This is the first detailed report of real-world survival and toxicity outcomes using ipilimumab and nivolumab treatment of pleural mesothelioma.



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