Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism


Oxford University Press


Nutrition and Health Innovation Research Institute / School of Medical and Health Sciences


National Health and Medical Research Council

Funding information :

Grant Number

NHMRC Numbers : 233200, APP1159914, 1172987


Pokharel, P., Blekkenhorst, L. C., Bondonno, C. P., Murray, K., Radavelli-Bagatini, S., Magliano, D. J., . . . Bondonno, N. P. (2024). Associations of vegetable and potato intakes with markers of type 2 diabetes risk in the ausdiab cohort. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. Advance online publication.


Context: The associations of vegetable and potato intakes with type 2 diabetes (T2D) appear to be nuanced, depending on vegetable types and preparation method, respectively.

Objective: We investigated the associations of total vegetable, vegetable subgroup, and potato intakes with (1) markers of T2D at baseline and (2) incident T2D cumulative over a 12-year follow-up period in Australian adults.

Methods: Using data from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle Study, intakes of vegetables and potatoes were assessed via a food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Associations between vegetable intake and (1) fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-hour postload plasma glucose (PLG), updated homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA2-%β), HOMA2 of insulin sensitivity (HOMA2-%S), and fasting insulin levels at baseline; and (2) cumulative incident T2D at the end of 12-year follow-up were examined using generalized linear and Cox proportional hazards models, respectively.

Results: In total, 8009 participants were included having median age of 52 years, and vegetable intake of 132 g/day. Higher intake of total vegetable, green leafy, yellow/orange/red, and moderate intakes of cruciferous vegetables was associated with lower PLG. Additionally, higher green leafy vegetable intake was associated with lower HOMA2-% and serum insulin. Conversely, higher potato fries/chips intakes were associated with higher FPG, HOMA2-% , serum insulin, and lower HOMA2-%S. Participants with moderate cruciferous vegetables intake had a 25% lower risk of T2D at the end of 12 years of follow-up.

Conclusion: A higher intake of vegetables, particularly green leafy vegetables, may improve while consuming potato fries/chips, but not potatoes prepared in a healthy way, may worsen glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Our findings suggest a nuanced relationship between vegetable subgroups and their impact on glucose tolerance



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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.