Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Energy Conversion and Management






School of Science




Deanship of Scientific Research at King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia / Large Groups R.G.P.


Soudagar, M. E. M., Shelare, S., Marghade, D., Belkhode, P., Nur-E-Alam, M., Kiong, T. S., . . . Fattah, I. M. R. (2024). Optimizing IC engine efficiency: A comprehensive review on biodiesel, nanofluid, and the role of artificial intelligence and machine learning. Energy Conversion and Management, 307, article 118337.


Transportation and power generation have historically relied upon Internal Combustion Engines (ICEs). However, because of environmental impact and inefficiency, considerable research has been devoted to improving their performance. Alternative fuels are necessary because of environmental concerns and the depletion of non-renewable fuel stocks. Biodiesel has the potential to reduce emissions and improve sustainability when compared to diesel fuel. Several researchers have examined using nanofluids to increase biodiesel performance in internal combustion engines. Due to their thermal and physical properties, nanoparticles in a host fluid improve engine combustion and efficiency. This comprehensive review examines three key areas for improving ICE efficiency: biodiesel as an alternative fuel, application of nanofluids, and artificial intelligence (AI)/machine learning (ML) integration. The integration of AI/ML in nanoparticle-infused biodiesel offers exciting possibilities for optimizing production processes, enhancing fuel properties, and improving engine performance. This article first discusses, the benefits of biodiesel concerning the environment and various difficulties associated with its usage. The review then explores the effects and characteristics of nanofluids in IC engines, aiming to know their impact on engine emissions and performance. After that, this review discusses the utilization of AI/ML techniques in enhancing the biodiesel-nanofluid combustion process. This article sheds light on the ongoing efforts to make ICE technology more environmentally friendly and energy-efficient by examining current research and emerging patterns in these fields. Finally, the review presents the challenges and future perspectives of the field, paving the way for future research and improvement.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.