Recent advances in plant-based compounds for mitigation of mycotoxin contamination in food products: current status, challenges and perspectives
International Journal of Food Science and Technology
School of Engineering
There are numerous strategies to control the growth of mycotoxigenic fungi and reduce mycotoxins in food, including physical, chemical and biological treatments. However, consumers prefer organic food and natural inhibitors because they are biodegradable and safe for human and animal health. This review summarises the current advances in plant-based compounds to mitigate contamination of food products by mycotoxigenic fungi and their toxins. In addition, a clear understanding of the roles of plant-based extracts in food products, their mechanisms of action and challenges and perspectives in mycotoxin degradation are presented. Essential oils and plant-based extracts are complex mixtures of major and minor chemical compounds with antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. In general, the mechanisms of antifungal activity of plant-based compounds are attributed to the reduction of the ergosterol content, disruption of cell membrane integrity, enhancing of membrane ion leakage and permeability, disruption to the organisation of mitochondrial structure, interference in enzymatic reactions of cell wall synthesis, disturbance of oxidative balance, inhibition of carbohydrate metabolism, suppression of mycotoxin biosynthetic genes and alterations in the molecular structure of mycotoxins.