Cross-education effects of unilateral accentuated eccentric isoinertial resistance training on lean mass and function
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports
School of Medical and Health Sciences / Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research
Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte, Gobierno de España, Grant/Award Number: FPU014/05732
Purpose: We investigated the effects of three different unilateral isoinertial resistance training protocols with eccentric overload on changes in lean mass and muscle function of trained (TL) and contralateral non-trained (NTL) legs. Methods: Physically active university students were randomly assigned to one of three training groups or a control group (n = 10/group). Participants in the training groups performed dominant leg isoinertial squat training twice a week for 6 weeks (4 sets of 7 repetitions) using either an electric-motor device with an eccentric phase velocity of 100% (EM100) or 150% (EM150) of concentric phase velocity or a conventional flywheel device (FW) with the same relative inertial load. Changes in thigh lean mass, unilateral leg-press one-repetition maximum (1-RM), muscle power at 40–80% 1-RM, and unilateral vertical jump height before and after training were compared between the groups and between TL and NTL. Results: No changes in any variable were found for the control group. In TL, all training groups showed similar increases (p < 0.05) in 1-RM strength (22.4–30.2%), lean tissue mass (2.5–5.8%), muscle power (8.8–21.7%), and vertical jump height (9.1–32.9%). In NTL, 1-RM strength increased 22.0–27.8% without significant differences between groups; however, increases in lean mass (p < 0.001) were observed for EM150 (3.5%) and FW (3.8%) only. Unilateral vertical jump height (6.0–32.9%) and muscle power (6.8–17.5%) also increased in NTL without significant differences between training groups. Conclusion: The three eccentric-overload resistance training modalities produced similar neuromuscular changes in both the trained and non-trained legs, suggesting that strong cross-education effects were induced by the eccentric-overload training.