Carbon nitride-based z-scheme heterojunctions for solar-driven advanced oxidation processes
Journal of Hazardous Materials
School of Science
Australian Research Council (DP190103548, DP200103206), 111 Project (D20015), China.
Solar-driven advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) via direct photodegradation or indirect photocatalytic activation of typical oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), peroxymonosulfate (PMS), and peroxydisulfate (PDS), have been deemed to be an efficient technology for wastewater remediation. Artificial Z-scheme structured materials represent a promising class of photocatalysts due to their spatially separated charge carriers and strong redox abilities. Herein, we summarize the development of metal-free graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4, CN)-based direct and indirect Z-scheme photocatalysts for solar-driven AOPs in removing organic pollutants from water. In the work, the classification of AOPs, definition and validation of Z-schemes are summarized firstly. The innovative engineering strategies (e.g., morphology and dimensionality control, element doping, defect engineering, cocatalyst loading, and tandem Z-scheme construction) over CN-based direct Z-scheme structure are then examined. Rational design of indirect CN-based Z-scheme systems using different charge mediators, such as solid conductive materials and soluble ion pairs, is further discussed. Through examining the relationship between the Z-scheme structure and activity (charge transfer and separation, light absorption, and reaction kinetics), we aim to provide more insights into the construction strategies and structure modification on CN-based Z-schemes towards improving their catalytic performances in AOPs. Lastly, limitations, challenges, and perspectives on future development in this emerging field are proposed.