Board gender diversity and corporate social responsibility in an international setting
Journal of Accounting in Emerging Economies
School of Business and Law
Purpose This study examines how board gender diversity (BGD) interacts with the “tough vs tender” trait in country cultures in influencing firms' corporate social responsibility (CSR). Design/methodology/approach An extensive set of environmental, social and governance (ESG) data of 5,748 firms from 70 countries were collected from Bloomberg terminal, and national-level data on “tough vs tender” societies were collected from the official website of Hofstede. The data were analysed using hierarchical multiple regression (HMR) and bootstrapping estimation techniques. Findings The findings show that BGD increases the extent of firms' CSR, with a more pronounced relationship in the tender than in the tough societies. Results are consistent in traditional (p-value based HMR) and robust (confidence intervals reliant bootstrapping) estimation techniques. Originality/value This study provides empirical evidence on tough vs tender societies' moderating role in the relationship between BGD and CSR from a rounded international setting. It also raises interesting insights about the dynamics in boards' responses to institutional forces as an avenue for future research.
Society and Culture
Individual, economic, organisational, political and social transformation