Highly dispersive ru confined in porous ultrathin g-C3N4 nanosheets as an efficient peroxymonosulfate activator for removal of organic pollutants
Journal of Hazardous Materials
School of Science
National Natural Science Foundation of China (51602133)
Ru species were loaded on a two-dimensional (2D) material of graphitic carbon nitride (2D g-C3N4) to serve as the efficient AOP catalysts. The catalytic activity was closely related to the dispersion degree of Ru, as determined by the inherent nanoarchitecture of the supporting material. Ultrathin g-C3N4 nanosheets with a unique porous structure were fabricated by further thermally oxidizing and etching bulk g-C3N4 (bCN) in air. Homogeneous dispersion of Ru species was successfully achieved on the porous few-layered g-C3N4 nanosheets (pCN) by stirring, washing, freeze drying and annealing processes to obtain Ru-pCN catalysts, whereas bCN or multilayered g-C3N4 (mCN) led to the aggregation of Ru nanoparticles in Ru-bCN and Ru-mCN materials. The conventional impregnation method also caused the resulting Ru-pCN-imp catalyst with undesirable Ru aggregation in spite of employing pCN. The optimal 4.4Ru-pCN removed 100% of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) within only 3 min, superior to its counterpart samples, and exhibited remarkable degradation efficiencies for methyl orange, neutral red, 4-chlorophenol, tetracycline and oxytetracycline. Mechanistic studies suggested that four radicals, e.g., •OH, SO4• −, O2• − and 1O2 were generated during the peroxymonosulfate (PMS) activation, in which SO4• − and 1O2 played a major role.