Asymmetrical modelling to understand purchase intention towards remanufactured products in the circular economy and a closed-loop supply chain: An empirical study in Malaysia
Journal of Cleaner Production
School of Business and Law
Remanufacturing, as a central closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) technique, contributes to the circular economy. While empirical research on remanufacturing has gained the attention of scholars, the crucial aspects of customer decision making – that is, determinants of customers' emotions and how they affect their purchasing decisions – have been neglected. Unlike most of the previous studies, which have used the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to explain environmental behaviours, this study used Stimulus Organism Response theory to explain purchase intention towards remanufactured products. Furthermore, the study extends the literature by investigating the impacts of environmental consciousness, government interference, sellers’ reputation, perceived environmental benefit, perceived knowledge, and perceived risk on intention to purchase remanufactured products through subjective norms, attitudes, and perceived behavioural control. A total of 253 useable data were collected and analysed using Partial Least Squares (PLS), as a symmetric analysis technique, and fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA), as an asymmetric technique. The findings from PLS found that subjective norms and perceived knowledge have non-significant effects on intention to purchase and attitude respectively. However, the findings from fsQCA showed that all factors play a role in shaping the intention to purchase remanufactured products and identified more heterogeneous combinations of stimuli and emotions to predict purchase intentions. Besides theoretical contributions, the study has numerous practical implications for government agencies and industry players aiming to enhance customer intention to purchase remanufactured products.