Evaluation of a systems ergonomics-based incident reporting system

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Applied Ergonomics






School of Medical and Health Sciences / Office of DVC (Research)


Australian Research Council

Grant Number

ARC Number : LP150100287


McLean, S., Coventon, L., Finch, C. F., Dallat, C., Carden, T., & Salmon, P. M. (2022). Evaluation of a systems ergonomics-based incident reporting system. Applied Ergonomics, 100, article 103651.




Incident reporting and learning systems are a fundamental component of safety management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a novel incident reporting system specific to the Australian Led Outdoor Activity (LOA) sector. The Understanding and Preventing Led Outdoor Accidents Data System (UPLOADS), is a recently introduced systems thinking-based incident reporting and learning system that utilises contemporary safety theory and methods.


The implementation of UPLOADS was evaluated using the RE-AIM framework based on the following dimensions: Reach, Efficacy, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance. A pragmatic evaluation approach was used in which evaluation data were collected through the triangulation of multiple sources including different LOA stakeholders from both the individual organisational level (LOA providers) and LOA sector governance level (LOA industry representatives), incident data collected through the UPLOADS National Incident Dataset, and the online and physical presence of UPLOADS.


The findings show that a key strength of UPLOADS is its effectiveness as incident reporting tool for improving safety in the LOA sector. However, a weakness of UPLOADS is that it is not being implemented appropriately by the LOA providers.


Overall, the current findings suggest that UPLOADS incident reporting tool is perceived by SMEs as an effective tool for improving safety in LOA. However, further work is required for UPLOADS to have a greater impact on the LOA sector. Specifically, Implementation of the UPLOADS system requires improvement, as well as additional training and education may be required to upskill and empower LOA providers to improve reporting and enhance the value placed on safety by LOA stakeholders. The RE-AIM framework was an appropriate evaluation framework for understanding the effectiveness of UPLOADS as a LOA sector specific incident reporting and learning system.

Practical applications:

The current findings have practical implications for ergonomics researchers applying evaluation frameworks in the real world, and LOA providers for implementing safety interventions. Lastly, contemporary systems-based incident reporting and learning systems have the capability to enhance the safety practices of the LOA sector.



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