School of Medical and Health Sciences
European Commission / Further funding information available at: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14122490
Previous studies suggest that nitric oxide is involved in the regulation of the intraocular pressure (IOP) and in the pathophysiology of open-angle glaucoma (OAG). However, prospective studies investigating the association between dietary nitrate intake, a source of nitric oxide, and incident (i)OAG risk are limited. We aimed to determine the association between dietary nitrate intake and iOAG, and to evaluate the association between dietary nitrate intake and IOP. From 1991 onwards, participants were followed each five years for iOAG in the Rotterdam Study. A total of 173 participants developed iOAG during follow-up. Cases and controls were matched on age (mean ± standard deviation: 65.7 ± 6.9) and sex (%female: 53.2) in a case:control ratio of 1:5. After adjustment for potential confounders, total dietary nitrate intake was associated with a lower iOAG risk (odds ratio (OR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 0.95 (0.91–0.98) for each 10 mg/day higher intake). Both nitrate intake from vegetables (OR (95% CI): 0.95 (0.91–0.98) for each 10 mg/day higher intake) and nitrate intake from non-vegetable food sources (OR (95% CI): 0.63 (0.41–0.96) for each 10 mg/day higher intake) were associated with a lower iOAG risk. Dietary nitrate intake was not associated with IOP. In conclusion, dietary nitrate intake was associated with a reduced risk of iOAG. IOP-independent mechanisms may underlie the association with OAG.
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