Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health








School of Medical and Health Sciences




Reece, A. S., & Hulse, G. K. (2022). Epidemiology of Δ8THC-Related Carcinogenesis in USA: A panel regression and causal inferential study. International journal of environmental research and public health, 19(13).


The use of ∆8THC is increasing at present across the USA in association with widespread cannabis legalization and the common notion that it is “legal weed”. As genotoxic actions have been described for many cannabinoids, we studied the cancer epidemiology of ∆8THC. Data on 34 cancer types was from the Centers for Disease Control Atlanta Georgia, substance abuse data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, ethnicity and income data from the U.S. Census Bureau, and cannabinoid concentration data from the Drug Enforcement Agency, were combined and processed in R. Eight cancers (corpus uteri, liver, gastric cardia, breast and post-menopausal breast, anorectum, pancreas, and thyroid) were related to ∆8THC exposure on bivariate testing, and 18 (additionally, stomach, Hodgkins, and Non-Hodgkins lymphomas, ovary, cervix uteri, gall bladder, oropharynx, bladder, lung, esophagus, colorectal cancer, and all cancers (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer)) demonstrated positive average marginal effects on fully adjusted inverse probability weighted interactive panel regression. Many minimum E-Values (mEVs) were infinite. p-values rose from 8.04 × 10−78. Marginal effect calculations revealed that 18 ∆8THCrelated cancers are predicted to lead to a further 8.58 cases/100,000 compared to 7.93 for alcoholism and −8.48 for tobacco. Results indicate that between 8 and 20/34 cancer types were associated with ∆8THC exposure, with very high effect sizes (mEVs) and marginal effects after adjustment exceeding tobacco and alcohol, fulfilling the epidemiological criteria of causality and suggesting a cannabinoid class effect. The inclusion of pediatric leukemias and testicular cancer herein demonstrates heritable malignant teratogenesis.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.