Title

Vitamin D and multiple health outcomes: An umbrella review of observational studies, randomized controlled trials, and mendelian randomization studies

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Advances in Nutrition

Publisher

Oxford Academic

School

School of Medical and Health Sciences / Centre for Precision Health

RAS ID

45269

Funders

National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC 81872682 and NSFC 81773527) / China–Australian Collaborative Grant / China Scholarship Council (NSFC 81561128020-NHMRC APP1112767) / DL was supported by the China Scholarship Council (CSC 201908110339).

Grant Number

NHMRC Number : APP1112767

Comments

Liu, D., Meng, X., Tian, Q., Cao, W., Fan, X., Wu, L., ... & Wang, Y. (2022). Vitamin D and multiple health outcomes: An umbrella review of observational studies, randomized controlled trials, and Mendelian randomization studies. Advances in Nutrition, 13(4), 1044-1062.

https://doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmab142

Abstract

Observational studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and Mendelian randomization (MR) studies have yielded inconsistent results on the associations of vitamin D concentrations with multiple health outcomes. In the present umbrella review we aimed to evaluate the effects of low vitamin D concentrations and vitamin D supplementation on multiple health outcomes. We summarized current evidence obtained from meta-analyses of observational studies that examined associations between vitamin D concentrations and multiple health outcomes, meta-analyses of RCTs that investigated the effect of vitamin D supplementation on multiple health outcomes, and MR studies that explored the causal associations of vitamin D concentrations with various diseases (international prospective register of systematic reviews PROSPERO registration number CRD42018091434). A total of 296 meta-analyses of observational studies comprising 111 unique outcomes, 139 meta-analyses of RCTs comprising 46 unique outcomes, and 73 MR studies comprising 43 unique outcomes were included in the present umbrella review. Twenty-eight disease outcomes were identified by both meta-analyses of observational studies and MR studies. Seventeen of these reported disease outcomes had consistent results, demonstrating that lower concentrations of vitamin D were associated with a higher risk for all-cause mortality, Alzheimer's disease, hypertension, schizophrenia, and type 2 diabetes. The combinations of consistent evidence obtained by meta-analyses of observational studies and MR studies together with meta-analyses of RCTs showed that vitamin D supplementation was associated with a decreased risk for all-cause mortality but not associated with the risk for Alzheimer's disease, hypertension, schizophrenia, or type 2 diabetes. The results indicated that vitamin D supplementation is a promising strategy with long-term preventive effects on multiple chronic diseases and thus has the potential to decrease all-cause mortality. However, the current vitamin D supplementation strategy might not be an efficient intervention approach for these diseases, suggesting that new strategies are highly needed to improve the intervention outcomes.

DOI

10.1093/advances/nmab142

Access Rights

subscription content

Research Themes

Health

Priority Areas

Prevention, detection and management of cancer and other chronic diseases

Share

 
COinS