Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Sensors

Volume

21

Issue

9

Publisher

MDPI

School

School of Science

RAS ID

35621

Comments

Rashid, A. N. M., Ahmed, M., & Pathan, A. S. K. (2021). Infrequent pattern detection for reliable network traffic analysis using robust evolutionary computation. Sensors, 21(9), article 3005. https://doi.org/10.3390/s21093005

Abstract

While anomaly detection is very important in many domains, such as in cybersecurity, there are many rare anomalies or infrequent patterns in cybersecurity datasets. Detection of infrequent patterns is computationally expensive. Cybersecurity datasets consist of many features, mostly irrelevant, resulting in lower classification performance by machine learning algorithms. Hence, a feature selection (FS) approach, i.e., selecting relevant features only, is an essential preprocessing step in cybersecurity data analysis. Despite many FS approaches proposed in the literature, cooperative co-evolution (CC)-based FS approaches can be more suitable for cybersecurity data preprocessing considering the Big Data scenario. Accordingly, in this paper, we have applied our previously proposed CC-based FS with random feature grouping (CCFSRFG) to a benchmark cybersecurity dataset as the preprocessing step. The dataset with original features and the dataset with a reduced number of features were used for infrequent pattern detection. Experimental analysis was performed and evaluated using 10 unsupervised anomaly detection techniques. Therefore, the proposed infrequent pattern detection is termed Unsupervised Infrequent Pattern Detection (UIPD). Then, we compared the experimental results with and without FS in terms of true positive rate (TPR). Experimental analysis indicates that the highest rate of TPR improvement was by cluster-based local outlier factor (CBLOF) of the backdoor infrequent pattern detection, and it was 385.91% when using FS. Furthermore, the highest overall infrequent pattern detection TPR was improved by 61.47% for all infrequent patterns using clustering-based multivariate Gaussian outlier score (CMGOS) with FS.

DOI

10.3390/s21093005

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research Themes

Securing Digital Futures

Priority Areas

Artificial intelligence and autonomous systems

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