Second-trimester maternal serum vitamin D and pregnancy outcome: The Western Australian Raine cohort study
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
School of Nursing and Midwifery
Aims: To assess the effect of maternal serum 25(OH)-vitamin D levels during the second trimester of pregnancy on the risk for gestational diabetes (GDM), pregnancy and infantile outcomes. Methods: This study is based on the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study. Maternal serum 25(OH)-vitamin D concentrations of 890 pregnant women were evaluated at 18 weeks pregnancy and grouped into serum Vitamin D quartiles ( > 30, 30–49, 50–74 and > 75 nmol/L). Results: Participants with de-seasonalized 25 (OH)-vitamin D levels < 30 nmol/L were more likely to develop GDM, but not after controlling for ethnicity. Women with high body mass index (BMI) > 30 were at a greater risk of developing GDM. Additionally, women with GDM were at a greater risk of primary caesarean delivery. Maternal serum levels of 25(OH)-vitamin D were positively associated with birth weight, body length and head circumference of the neonate. Conclusion: Low maternal serum levels of 25(OH)-vitamin D are associated with GDM gestational diabetes, and race/ethnicity may modify this relationship. High pre-gestational BMI may predict GDM risk. GDM in pregnancy may increase the risk for delivery by caesarean section. Maternal 25(OH)-vitamin D is associated with anthropometric measures of the neonate.