Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry




School of Medical and Health Sciences




National Health and Medical Research Council

Australian Government Department of Education

Macquarie University

Australian Research Council Laureate Fellowship

Grant Number

NHMRC Number : APP1047185, GNT1119339ARC Number : FL150100096


This is a post-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. The final authenticated version is available online at:

Le, L. K. D., Chatterton, M. L., Rapee, R. M., Fitzpatrick, S., Bussey, K., Hudson, J., ... Mihalopoulos, C. (2023). Burden and preference-based quality of life associated with bullying in children. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 53-62.


The objectives of this study are to assess the association between childhood bullying and preference-based health-related quality of life (QoL) in Australian school children and their parents and estimate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) associated with bullying chronicity. Children aged 8–10 years completed the child health utilities (CHU-9D), while parents completed the Australian quality of life (AQoL-8D). Children were grouped into four categories of bullying involvement (no bullying, victim, perpetrator, or both perpetrator and victim) based on the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire. Parental data were compared across two bullying involvement groups (bullying vs. no bullying). QALYs were calculated for children over two years and comparisons made based on the number of assessments where bullying was reported (baseline, 1- and 2-year follow up). Children who were involved in bullying (victims and/or perpetrators) reported statistically significantly lower mean utility scores compared to children who were not involved in bullying. Parents whose child was involved in bullying had significantly lower mean utility scores compared to parents of children not involved with bullying. There appeared to be a dose–response relationship, with higher QALY losses associated with increasing frequency of reported bullying. Bullying among Australian school children was associated with significantly lower preference-based QoL for themselves and their parents. This study also confirmed the significant burden of disease for bullying among children measured by an incremental decrease in QALY with an increasing chronicity of bullying over time.