Antibiotics and healthcare facility-associated Clostridioides difficile infection: Systematic review and meta-analysis 2020 update
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Oxford University Press
School of Medical and Health Sciences
Background: Antibiotic use is the most important modifiable risk factor for healthcare facility-associated Clostridioides difficile infection (HCFA-CDI). Previous systematic reviews cover studies published until 31 December 2012. Objectives: To update the evidence for associations between antibiotic classes and HCFA-CDI to 31 December 2020. Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science Core Collection, WorldCat and Proquest Dissertations & Theses were searched for studies published since 1 January 2013. Eligible studies were those conducted among adult hospital inpatients, measured exposure to individual antibiotics or antibiotic classes, included a comparison group and measured the occurrence of HCFA-CDI as an outcome. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to appraise study quality. To assess the association between each antibiotic class and HCFA-CDI, a pooled random-effects meta-analysis was undertaken. Meta-regression and subgroup analysis was used to investigate study characteristics identified a priori as potential sources of heterogeneity. Results: Carbapenems and third-and fourth-generation cephalosporin antibiotics remain the most strongly associated with HCFA-CDI, with cases more than twice as likely to have recent exposure to these antibiotics prior to developing HCFA-CDI. Modest associations were observed for fluoroquinolones, clindamycin and β-lactamase inhibitor combination penicillin antibiotics. Individual study effect sizes were variable and heterogeneity was observed for most antibiotic classes. Conclusions: This review provides the most up-to-date synthesis of evidence in relation to the risk of HCFA-CDI associated with exposure to specific antibiotic classes. Studies were predominantly conducted in North America or Europe and more studies outside of these settings are needed.
Safety and quality in health care