Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

BMC Cancer






Springer Nature / BMC


Exercise Medicine Research Institute




National Health and Medical Research Council

Grant Number

NHMRC Number : APP1194051


Agbejule, O. A., Hart, N. H., Ekberg, S., Koczwara, B., Ladwa, R., Simonsen, C., ... Chan, R. J. (2021). Bridging the research to practice gap: a systematic scoping review of implementation of interventions for cancer-related fatigue management. BMC Cancer, 21, article 809.


Background: Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is one of the most common and distressing symptoms in people with cancer. Although efficacy of interventions for CRF have been extensively investigated, less has been done to ensure successful translation into routine clinical practice. The aim of this systematic scoping review was to synthesise knowledge surrounding the implementation of CRF interventions, summarise the processes and outcomes of implementation strategies used, and identify opportunities for further research. Methods: PubMed, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE and CINAHL databases were searched (up to December 2020). The Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group taxonomy and the RE-AIM Framework were used to guide the evaluation of implementation strategies and outcomes, respectively. Results: Six studies were included. Three used an implementation framework (PARIHS, KTA, Cullens & Adams’ Implementation Guide) to guide implementation. Overall, the implementation strategies used across all studies were reported to have directly resulted in immediate changes at the clinician level (e.g., increased clinician behaviours, self-efficacy, attitudes, knowledge of CRF management). No clear relationship was found between the use of implementation models and the number or type of implementation strategies used. For outcomes, Effectiveness and Implementation were the most highly reported RE-AIM measures followed by Reach then Maintenance. Adoption was the least reported. Conclusions: Despite the high prevalence of CRF and evidence-based interventions for managing CRF, there is limited evidence informing the sustainable implementation of these interventions. This systematic scoping review emphasises the lack of quality CRF implementation studies presently available in the literature leading to a disconnect between effective CRF interventions, routine clinical care, and cancer survivors at present. This review highlights the need for robust study designs guided by established frameworks to methodically design and evaluate the implementation of CRF management interventions in the future.



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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.