ORCID : 0000-0002-8091-961X
ORCID : 0000-0002-8080-1590
The Journal of Physical Chemistry C
American Chemical Society Publications
School of Engineering / Centre for Sustainable Energy and Resources
Edith Cowan University - Open Access Support Scheme 2021
Higher Education of Pakistan Ministry
Natural gas trapped in hydrate deposits is a potentially enormous source of energy which can in principle be extracted from the underground reservoir structures. These reserves can potentially also catastrophically release very large quantities of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. One key parameter which is well known to strongly influence fluid distribution, saturation, and production is rock wettability. However, the effect of wettability on gas hydrate in sediments has not been investigated yet. We thus used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry to measure relaxation times (T2 and T1) and the corresponding surface relaxivity of tetrahydrofuran hydrate during the formation and dissociation in water- and oil-wet Bentheimer sandstones. We also measured the NMR porosities and hydrate saturations at different temperatures during hydrate formation/dissociation for both water-wet and oil-wet sandstones. Significantly higher hydrate saturation was observed in the water-wet sandstone (when compared to the oil-wet sandstone) at all stages of hydrate formation and dissociation. Furthermore, the T2 spectra moved from the lower relaxation domain (before hydrate formation) to the fast relaxation domain (after hydrate formation) in both water-wet and oil-wet sandstones. However, the water-wet sandstone generally had a T2 relaxation range due to the higher water affinity to the water-wet rock and the associated faster demagnetization of the water molecules. These results demonstrate that low-field NMR can be used to quantify the rock wettability and observe hydrate behavior in geologic sediments. This fundamental information thus aids in the development of gas extraction from hydrate reservoirs and the assessment of potential greenhouse gas emissions from such reservoirs into the atmosphere.
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