Ischemic Stroke: From Next Generation Sequencing and GWAS to Community Genomics?
Mary Ann Liebert Inc.
School of Medical Sciences
Stroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in both the developed and developing world. Next generation sequencing (NGS) and multi-omics integrative biology research offer new opportunities in the way we research and understand stroke. These biotechnologies also signal a shift from genetics to genomics of stroke, which is highlighted in this review. Stroke is a focal neurological deficit resulting from disruption of the cerebral blood supply. There are two main types of common stroke, ischemic stroke (IS), which comprises 80% of cases, and hemorrhagic stroke (HS) that accounts for about 20% of cases. IS is a complex multi-factorial disease with multiple environmental and genomic determinants. We discuss here IS from genomics and bioinformatics perspectives, including the highlights of the genome wide association studies (GWAS), NGS progress to date, and exome studies. While both 'common variant, common disease' and 'rare variant, common disease' approaches need to be assessed in tandem, future studies into IS omics should also consider pedigree and/or community based sampling to take account of the complex diversity of IS genetics. We conclude by presenting an example of such community genomics research from China in an extended pedigree sample, and the ways in which the intersection of genomics and global society can usefully inform our understanding of IS pathophysiology and potential preventive medicine interventions in the future.