Relationships between punch impact force and upper- and lower-body muscular strength and power in highly trained amateur boxers

Author Identifier

Fiona Iredale

ORCID : 0000-0003-4186-2574

Anthony Blazevich

ORCID : 0000-0003-1664-1614

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research


National Strength and Conditioning Association


School of Medical and Health Sciences / Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research




Australian Government Research Training Program


Dunn, E. C., Humberstone, C. E., Franchini, E., Iredale, K. F., & Blazevich, A. J. (2022). Relationships between punch impact force and upper- and lower-body muscular strength and power in highly trained amateur boxers. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 36(4), 1019-1025.



This study examined the relationship between upper- and lower-body strength and power characteristics and punch performance in 28 highly trained male amateur boxers. Punch performance was assessed with a custom-built punch integrator using a 3-minute maximal effort punch test that contained straight- and bent-arm punches from the lead and rear hands. Peak punch force and force-time variables including impulse and rate of force development (RFD; calculated to various points) were assessed. Force, power, and RFD of the upper and lower body were assessed with countermovement bench throw, isometric bench push, countermovement jump (CMJ), and isometric midthigh pull (IMTP) tests. Correlation and regression analyses revealed significant (p < 0.05) relationships between peak punch force and forces measured in CMJ and IMTP tests. In addition, peak punch force was moderately and significantly correlated to body mass, but RFD in the lower body was not. Moreover, no meaningful relationships between punch performance characteristics and any upper-body strength or power parameter were identified. The results of this study show that lower-body strength but not RFD had a moderate to strong positive and significant correlation to peak punch force production. Although upper-body strength and power are expected to be important in boxing, they did not discriminate between boxers who punched with higher or lower peak force nor were they correlated to peak punch force. Training that improves lower-body strength without increasing total body mass (to maintain weight category) may positively influence punch capacity in highly trained amateur boxers.



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