Needle-related pain, affective reactions, fear, and emotional coping in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes: A cross-sectional study
ORCID : 0000-0002-3256-5407
Pain Management Nursing
School of Nursing and Midwifery
Background: The self-care of type 1 diabetes (T1D) includes undergoing procedures with needles several times daily, which may cause pain and fear. Aims: The aim was to identify the degree of perceived pain, affective reactions, fear, and emotional coping among children and adolescents with T1D. Design: A cross-sectional survey was performed. Methods: Children and adolescents 7-18 years of age (n = 197) and their parents (n = 123) completed the Coloured Analogue Scale (CAS), the Facial Affective Scale (FAS), the Diabetes Fear of Injection Questionnaire (D-FISQ), and the Faces Emotional Coping Scale (FECS) in relation to needle procedures. Results: The higher the values of the CAS, FAS and D-FISQ scores, the lower values for coping were reported by children and adolescents regarding treatment with insulin pen or pump, blood glucose test, and venipuncture (p < .001). Patients reported strong negative affect regarding insulin injections (35%) and blood glucose tests (32%), as well as negative affect (48%, 69%) and substantial pain (27%, 50%) for inserting a pump needle and venipuncture, respectively. Parents reported significantly higher values than children on all scales and procedures except D-FISQ (blood glucose tests) and FECS (venipuncture). Conclusions: Children and adolescents who perceive greater pain during needle-related procedures have poorer coping ability. Pediatric diabetes teams need to identify those in need of extra support to develop pain coping strategies.
Safety and quality in health care