Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title






PubMed ID





School of Medical and Health Sciences




Nobari, H., Banoocy, N. K., Oliveira, R., & Pérez-Gómez, J. (2021). Win, draw, or lose? Global positioning system-based variables’ effect on the match outcome: A full-season study on an Iranian professional soccer team. Sensors, 21(17), 5695.


The aim of the study was to determine the between-match and between-halves match variability of various Global Positioning System (GPS) variables and metabolic power average (MPA) in competitions, based on the match results obtained by professional soccer players over a full season. Observations on individual match performance measures were undertaken on thirteen outfield players competing in the Iranian Premier League. The measures selected for analysis included total duration, accelerations in zones (AccZ1, 2, and 3), decelerations in zones (DecZ1, 2, and 3), and MPA collected by the Wearable Inertial Measurement Unit (WIMU). The GPS manufacturer set the thresholds for the variables analyzed as follows: AccZ1 (<2 >m·s); AccZ2 (2 to 4 m·s); AccZ3 (>4 m·s); DecZ1 (-4 m·s). The results revealed significant differences between wins and draws for the duration of the match and draws compared to wins for the first- half duration ( ≤ 0.05; ES = 0.36 [-0.43, 1.12]), ( ≤ 0.05; ES = -7.0 [-8.78, -4.78], respectively. There were significant differences on AccZ1 during the first-half between draws and defeats ( ≤ 0.05; ES = -0.43 [-1.32, 0.46]), for AccZ3 in the second-half between draws and defeats ( ≤ 0.05; ES = 1.37 [0.48, 2.25]). In addition, there were significant differences between wins and draws ( ≤ 0.05; ES = 0.22 [-0.62, 1.10]), and wins and defeats for MPA in the first- half ( ≤ 0.05; ES = 0.34 [-0.65, 1.22]). MPA showed further differences between draws and defeats in the second- half ( ≤ 0.05; ES = 0.57 [-0.22, 1.35]). Descriptive analysis revealed differences between the first and second half for wins in AccZ2 ( = 0.005), DecZ2 ( = 0.029), and MPA ( = 0.048). In addition, draws showed significant differences between the first and second half in duration, AccZ1, AccZ2, and DecZ2 ( = 0.008), ( = 0.017), ( = 0.040), and ( = 0.037) respectively. Defeats showed differences between the first and second half in AccZ1, AccZ3, and MPA ( = 0.001), ( = 0.018), and ( = 0.003) respectively. In summary, the study reveals large variations between the match duration, accelerometer variables, and MPA both within and between matches. Regardless of the match outcome, the first half seems to produce greater outputs. The results should be considered when performing a half-time re-warm-up, as this may be an additional factor influencing the drop in the intensity markers in the second half in conjunction with factors such as fatigue, pacing strategies, and other contextual variables that may influence the results.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.