Author Identifier

Lisa Whitehead

ORCID : 0000-0002-6395-0279

Diane Twigg

ORCID : 0000-0002-4694-4555

Christine Duffield

ORCID : 0000-0001-6534-8743

Document Type

Journal Article

Publication Title

International Journal of Nursing Studies




School of Nursing and Midwifery / Kurongkurl Katitjin




Edith Cowan University - Open Access Support Scheme 2021

Chief Nursing & Midwifery Office, Government of Western Australia, Department of Health


Whitehead, L., Twigg, D. E., Carman, R., Glass, C., Halton, H., & Duffield, C. (2022). Factors influencing the development and implementation of nurse practitioner candidacy programs: A scoping review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 125, article 104133.



To meet the growing needs of a diverse population, it is critical that healthcare service provision is underpinned by innovative, cost-effective, and sustainable services and solutions. The role of the nurse practitioner creates an opportunity to meet the increasing demands of complex care and enables greater access to high quality care. Understanding how best to support nurse practitioner candidates to develop into the nurse practitioner role will create greater opportunities to transform service delivery and improve healthcare outcomes.


To identify key factors that support and positively impact the implementation of nurse practitioner candidacy programs and candidate experiences.


A scoping review of research and grey literature was conducted using Joanna Briggs Institute methodology. For the research literature, eight electronic databases (Embase, Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Joanna Briggs Institute, PubMed and PsycINFO) were searched followed by a hand search of the reference lists of published systematic reviews and relevant topical papers. A review of national and international grey literature sources was completed.


Identification of a service gap, developing and promoting a clear role for the nurse practitioner candidate, integration into a multi-disciplinary team with strong mentorship/preceptorship support, continuing professional development, and evaluation of the program were identified as key factors in the research and grey literature.


A well-designed candidacy program can facilitate transition of the candidate into an autonomous, fully independent nurse practitioner. Recommendations to support the implementation of these roles into the clinical setting have been generated.



Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

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