What are the metrics of Cyber warfare? How does one measure success?

Document Type

Conference Proceeding


Curran Associates Inc.


School of Science




Armistead, L., Starsman, S. (2015). What are the metrics of Cyber warfare? How does one measure success? in European Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security, (pp. 19-25) Hatfield, UK: University of Hertfordshire. Available here.


This paper continues the process of laying the groundwork for a new comprehensive academic theory on Cyber Macht (Cyber Power). In this particular paper, the authors will focus on trying to determine the metrics of cyber operations, ie how does one measure success? The ability to measure and validate success is always a crucial metric in the performance of a task, and in this case the conduct of IO campaigns is no different. The researchers for this paper will analyse two approaches for the development of metrics in a Cyber environment: A top-down approach with a strong feedback mechanism, one that allows actors to learn lessons from their actions and to apply changes to the system as deemed appropriate. A more decentralised methodology, which embraced any and all IO standards. This bottom-up view utilises a more liberal process for collecting metrics that attempts to bring together disparate activities into a collective force. This paper will analyse the efforts of various IO initiatives by both sides, and attempt to determine the key factors of success.

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